Dynamic economy and growing awareness of thirty eight million society create the demand for clean technologies and clean energy increase. According to the commitments to European Union by the end 2020 the participation of energy from renewable sources will have doubled. Climate and agricultural conditions and the system of investment incentive guarantee the dynamic development of the sector.
National renewable energy market is so absorbing that Poland is not an exporter of energy coming from renewable sources. The only exceptions here are bioethanol and biodiesel. Natural conditions and the participation of farming in economy put Eastern Poland in a positive situation in the light of whole Poland and they make a chance for the development of renewable energy in Macroregion.
Types of renewable energy and its resources in Macroregion
Water energy resources depend on two factors: the decrease of a river’s bed and water flows. Poland is a lowland country where it rains relatively little and where there is high ground permeability, which considerably limits resources of the source. On the national scale the economic potential of water energy is used only in 41%. In the Macroregion there are suitable conditions for building small power plants in Roztocze.
Geothermal energy is extracted from heat stored in the earth. Geothermal waters are under the surface of almost 80% of Poland’s territory and are relatively of low temperature. Unfortunately their sources are concentrated mostly at the Podkarpacie region, the lane from Szczecin to Łódź and the Grudziądz and Warsaw region; they are used only in 12%.
Poland doesn’t receive equal amount of sun. In the annual circle 80% of total amount of insolation is in the spring-summer term. On the national scale the land that receives most sun is the southern Lublin region. On the industrial scale solar energy is practically not used. Sun collectors exist only in small detached objects far from the network. Therefore investing in the development of solar energy in Macroregion can be beneficial.
Apart form the Coast being mostly abroad Macroregion the best conditions for using such type of energy are in North-East part and on non-forested hills of southern part of Region. In 2010 wind energy is to be 2,3% of the whole energy produced in Poland. Taking advantage of the increase of number and the power of wind power plants this hypothesis seems achievable.
Biomass is the most important source of renewable energy in Poland which may compete with fossil fuels. Energy comes from the excess farming materials, wooden leftovers, growing energetic plants and leftovers of forest economy and farm production including biogas. Biomass is the source used mostly for the production of heating energy in objects of small and middle power in dispersed power generation. Generally there are125 biogas plants and 15 biomass power plants.
The potential of renewable energy in Eastern Poland
The investment attractiveness in renewable energy sources is different in the five provinces of Eastern Poland: each of them has a different potential of producing energy from renewable sources. The Podlaski province takes the first place and the last place is for the Świętokrzyskie and Podkarpackie provinces. However, it is in the Podkarpackie province where the sources of renewable energy are particularly rich and used the most. Nevertheless, generally the participation of the five provinces in the production of renewable energy in Poland is low. Only the following provinces can be distinguished: the Podkarpackie province because of the high production of water energy and The Warmia and Masuria and Podlaskie provinces because of over 6% of wind energy production. Production infrastructure in Eastern Poland is 224 power plants which produce almost 20% of renewable energy in the country.
The biggest companies and foreign investors
A great number of firms working in the sector of renewable energy are foreign companies that concentrate their investments on wind energy and more rarely on biomass processing. Polish market is attractive because the price for certificate of producing 1 MWh renewable energy is one of the highest in Europe. The development of wind farms actuates the whole trade sector.
In Eastern Europe there are 59 clusters dealing with research and production of renewable energy out of which 21 are in the Lubelskie province only.
Lublin Eco-Energy Cluster
The cluster was initiated by the Foundation for Lubelskie Development. It backs up every activity connected with the balance usage of renewable energy sources based on the potential of the Lubelskie province through elaborating and launching innovation projects.
Małopolsko-Podkarpacki Cluster of Clean Energy
It is set up on the basis of the agreement of many public, educational and private institutions and trade groups of the provinces: małopolskie, podkarpackie and śląskie. The main aim of the cluster activities is the increase in receiving pure energy in the environment protection region, as well as the concentration of research in the area and the increase of energetic security of the country.
It is a cluster for biomass producers for the needs of energy industry in the Świętokrzyskie province. The aim of the cluster is launching a system of thermal energy production in the Świętokrzyskie province based on renewable energy sources through preparing a system of receiving, production, transport and transformation of biomass logistics.
Baltic Cluster Ecoenergetic (BCKEE)
An initiative of scientific institutes, authorities and private entrepreneurs. It covers the area of North Poland from Koszalin through the Pomerania province up to the Warmia and Masuria province. The strategic aim is the coordination of the realization of Regional Strategies of Energy Industry in the ecoenergy sector through increasing the usage of regional and central funds of UE. The cluster is concentrated on launching of the dispersed cogeneration, which means simultaneous production of thermal and electric energy on a small and middle scale basing on renewable energy sources, specially biomass as well as water, solar and wind energy.
Warmińsko-Mazurki Cluster “Together warmer”
Made by City thermal Energy Enterpreneurship in Olsztyn with the aim of actuating trade cooperation as far as new technologies and innovations are concerned. It is supposed to develop thermal sector thanks to the increase of competitiveness of thermal entrepreneurs, the diversification of their activity with the usage of renewable energy sources more and more often.
Kętrzyński Cluster of Renewable Energy
The initiative is being realized with the localization on the area of former sugar factory in Kętrzyn. The main aim will be the production of so-called clean energy including biofuels and biocomponents production. What will be transformed are house and farming rests. The University of Warmińko-Mazurskie, one of the agreement signers is to work over new technologies, launch them and even help with making research and development base. The university is one of the most active high schools in the country in the field of researches over renewable energy sources –since 2006 the Centre of Renewable Energy has worked here.
The perspectives of renewable energy development in Eastern Poland
The report ‘Planned investments in renewable energy in 2009-2011’ proves that almost 80% firms taking part in the research have declared that in the coming three years they are going to invest at least in one of the sectors of renewable energy. What is most often mentioned is wind energy and building wind firms mostly in Northern Poland specially in the Warmia and Masuria province. Next there is energy coming from biomass and biogas (building heating plant, electroheating plant and biogas plant). What is also important in investing projects is building small water power plants and modernization of the already existing objects. In Poland since 2020 the usage of economic potential of renewable energy sources will have increased up to 60%.
Taking into account the forecast of usage development of renewable energy sources and economic potential of provinces in Eastern Poland – especially in the following range of biomass, biogas, wind and water energy one should expect that one of the most important Polish regions where renewable energy sources will be developed is Eastern Poland. Great investment perspectives in the sector of renewable energy sources in Eastern Poland are additionally strengthened with the system of investment reinforcements.